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發表發表於: 七月 星期五 03, 2015 11:53 am    文章主題: 中日雙邊和約 引言回覆

從<條約法>看戰後對臺灣及南海諸島主權歸屬的處置
鄭海麟(香港亞太研究中心主任)

日前,美國防長卡特就中國在南海島礁進行維權活動發表了一系列挑釁性的言論,這些不明歷史真相兼極不負責任的言論,立即遭到中國國防部發言人的有力駁斥。為弄清歷史事實,本文嘗試從<條約法>的角度對南海諸島、臺灣及釣魚島等島嶼的戰後處置略作梳理,以便讓世人明瞭該島嶼的主權歸屬。
臺灣及釣魚島問題、南海島嶼爭議等問題,嚴格說來都是二戰後遺留的歷史問題。這一系列問題都是相互關聯的,其中與日本關係特別重大,因為這些島嶼在二戰結束之前都是日本用武力侵佔的殖民地。根據1943年的<開羅宣言>和1945年的<波茨坦公告>,這些島嶼都應歸還給中國。戰後這些問題為何一直得不到合理的解決?這又與美國在戰後奉行“扶日阻共”的亞洲政策有關。研究這些問題,首先要搞清歷史的脈絡,把握到問題的癥結和時間上的關鍵日期。理由是,如果將這些問題提交國際法庭,從以往國際法庭判案的慣例來看,最受法官看重的是條約和關鍵日期這兩點。因為只有條約才有法律效力。與此同時,簽訂條約及條約生效的日期(即法律上的關鍵日期)也至關重要,否則便不能將問題講清楚。在這媮晱眸殿y加說明的是:國際法上的條約大致上分為“造法條約”(Law-making Treaties)與“契約條約”(Treaties of Contract)兩類。“造法條約”通常是由許多國家所締結的“多邊條約”(Multilateral Treaties),規定若干共同遵守的規則,故通常顯得較籠統含糊。比如<開羅宣言>和<波茨坦公告>,以及1951年的<舊金山和約>,這些條約就屬於“造法條約”,也即是“多邊條約”這一類。至於“契約條約”,通常是指“雙邊條約”(Bilateral Treaties),規定與兩締約國自身有關的特殊事項,故通常顯得較具體明確。因此,“契約條約”又有“處分條約”之稱,並且具有很強的法律約束力。例如1895年的中日<馬關條約>和1952年的<中日雙邊條約>就屬於這一類。
二戰結束後,有關聯合國在處理日本於戰前用武力侵佔的領土問題時,還必須從<舊金山和約>說起。該條約全文共七章二十七條,其中第二章<領域>部分,涉及中日疆界問題的條款明確規定:“日本國業己放棄對於臺灣及澎湖以及南沙群島西沙群島之一切權利、權利名義和要求。”在這堙A聯合國只是規定日本必須無條件放棄上列領土的一切權益,但放棄之後這些權益歸屬誰?<舊金山和約>並沒有明文規定。原因是<舊金山和約>只是一部“造法條約”,只能提供日本一些指導性的意見。至於日本放棄的權益歸屬誰?必須由日本與被侵佔領土的主權國簽訂一份“雙邊條約”,具體解決這些領土權益的歸屬問題。於是,在美國的斡旋下,日本政府於1952年4月28日(即<舊金山和約>生效日)與當時在聯合國仍然代表中國的中華民國政府(台灣國民黨政權)簽訂了<中日雙邊和約>。該和約全文共十四條,另附議定書二款共七項,作為對和約本文的附加和解釋條款。其中涉及領土權益的是該和約的第二條:“日本放棄對於臺灣澎湖列島以及南沙群島及西沙群島的一切權益。”這一條款在文字上雖與<舊金山和約>相同,但訂約的對象卻是受日本侵略的領土主權國。這就意味著日本自1895年<馬關條約>簽訂以來所侵佔的臺灣(包括釣魚島在內的所有附屬島嶼)、澎湖列島、西沙群島、南沙群島等島嶼己歸屬中國。儘管<中日雙邊和約>有這樣那樣的闕失(其中最受國人垢病的是放棄對日索償),但作為中日兩國解決領土問題的一部“契約條約”,日本放棄的這些領土及其一切權益,自然歸屬與其簽訂契約的對方即中國,這是毫無疑義的,即所謂“物歸原主”是也。
毫無疑問,<中日雙邊和約>是與<馬關條約>相對應的一部“契約條釣”,根據<中日雙邊和約>,日本己將依據<馬關條約>取得的台灣及其所有附屬島嶼(包括釣魚島)及澎湖列島歸還中國;同時又將第一次世界大戰以來用武力侵佔的西沙群島、南沙群島一併歸還中國,這是有條約依據的。在1952年4月28日《舊金山和約》生效、以及<中日雙邊和約>簽訂這一關鍵日期之前,日本在國際法上還可聲明擁有這些島嶼的權益,但在這一關鍵日期之後,這些島嶼的主權和一切權益無疑歸屬中國。至於越南、菲律賓等一些國家在這一關鍵日期之後,只是用武力佔領了一些島嶼,但是根本沒有法理依據的,當然也是沒有主權的。擁有主權的只有中國。因此,南海問題的關鍵時間點也是在1952年4月28日,即日本與臺灣的中華民國政府簽定瞭解決領土爭端的雙邊條約這一天。
不過,1971年以後,中華人民共和國繼承了中華民國在聯合國的席位,所以也就繼承了台灣、澎湖列島和西沙群島、南沙群島等島嶼的主權。因此,中華人民共和國對南海島嶼擁有主權。但事實是目前大陸和臺灣都只是佔領著南海的部分島嶼,所以兩岸之間必須合作協商來解決這個問題。
至於近年來釣魚島問題和南海問題再度浮現,這又與美國的重返亞洲戰略有關。美國的意圖是不接受中國提出的“九段線”內的領土和領海主張,試圖重新洗牌,由其主導簽訂一個類似《舊金山條約》性質的“多邊條約”,重新規範南海周邊各國的秩序。所以,美國想趁中國還沒有強大起來的時候,要把南海問題多邊化、國際化,希望讓更多周邊國家參與進來,達到日後重新規範南海新秩序的目的。因此,“多邊條約”和“雙邊條約”的問題也很值得關注。美國主張南海問題多邊化,中國堅決反對多邊化解決南海問題,主張各聲索國分別就爭議島嶼進行雙邊談判。多邊化是美國的要求和企圖,這是中美之間在南海問題上的根本分歧。美國要求中國保證南海海域的航行自由和無害通過,這堶惜]涉及許多很複雜的問題,有高度的政治性。其實都是大國之間的博弈。最後就是中美之間角力,看誰最終握有主導簽訂《南海問題條約》的話語權。
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註冊時間: 2020-03-23
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發表發表於: 一月 星期一 11, 2021 12:51 am    文章主題: 引言回覆

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