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日本•取代二戰後和平憲法

 
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註冊時間: 2005-03-28
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發表發表於: 十月 星期六 29, 2005 9:16 pm    文章主題: 日本•取代二戰後和平憲法 引言回覆

http://www.sinchew.com.my/content.phtml?sec=4&artid=200510290980
updated:2005-10-29 17:57:12 MYT


(東京訊)日本執政的自民黨週五公佈了全面修改後的新憲法草案,以取代第二次世界大戰後的和平憲法,並尋求給它的軍隊一個具體的法律基礎和可以在海外參與戰鬥的依據。

據日本《共同社》報導,自民黨對現行日本憲法進行全面修改,明確寫入“保持自衛隊”的內容。

在國內外持續對日本會重振軍國主義感到擔憂之際,自民黨擬訂了一份第一次修改美國制訂的和平憲法的草案。自民黨計劃在下屆通常國會上首先制定《國民投票法》,並待明年民主黨制定修改憲法案後,考慮將修改憲法列入政治日程中。

自衛隊國外可動武

備受關注的憲法第9條中,規定“放棄戰爭”的現行憲法第9條第一項被原樣保留,但規定“不保持戰鬥力”的第二項被刪除。還明確寫入為確保“國家的和平和獨立”,將以首相為最高指揮“保持自衛隊”。自衛隊的任務包括在緊急狀況下維持秩序和從事國際合作活動,也可在日本國外行使武力。

這部前所未有的憲法草案禁止使用武力來作為“解決國際糾紛的途徑”。它獲得了自民黨執行理事會的批准,並向傳媒公佈。

它也維護天皇為國家的象徵,把他限制於執行象徵的義務,並不像已故裕仁天皇那樣地扮演神道教中半神化的角色,可以在戰爭時擔任軍事首長。

完全保留第9條文

自民黨的這部草案完全保留了著名的1947年憲法的第9條文。這項條文說:“日本人民永遠擯棄把戰爭當作國家的主權和譴責威脅或利用武力來作為解決國際糾紛的途徑。”

但它刪除了這項條文中的另一段文字:“日本絕對不會擁有海、陸、空軍,以及其他可能用作戰爭的工具。”

相反的,草案說:“為了確保和平和我們國家的獨立,以及國家與人民的安全,我們將保有供作自衛的部隊,以內閣首相為最高統帥。”

草案說,這些部隊將會根據法律受到國會和其他權力機構的制約。

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LDP revises Article 9 in draft Constitution
Official OK for military force sought

By TETSUSHI KAJIMOTO
Staff writer

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party on Friday endorsed a new draft Constitution featuring a rewritten version of war-renouncing Article 9 that would officially allow the nation to possess a military for self-defense.

The draft was compiled by the LDP's Constitution drafting committee. It was endorsed during a meeting of the LDP's Executive Council, the party's top-decision making body, following its endorsement at the drafting committee's general assembly earlier in the day.

The Democratic Party of Japan, the nation's main opposition force, is planning to present its preliminary draft for a revised Constitution on Monday.

The LDP's move is thus likely to accelerate ongoing debate over possible revisions to the Constitution, which has remained intact since its creation after World War II.

The LDP's draft constitution retains Clause 1 of the original Article 9, which stipulates that the nation renounces war as a means of settling international disputes.

But Clause 2, which prohibits the nation from possessing a military, has been deleted.

The LDP is planning to unveil the draft Constitution on the upcoming occasion of the party's 50th anniversary, which will be marked on Nov. 22.

The draft also spells out that the nation will maintain a "self-defense military," with the prime minister serving as the supreme commander tasked with ensuring the nation's peace and independence, along with the people's safety.

The self-defense military would also be allowed to engage in activities aimed at maintaining public order and protecting people's lives and freedom in emergencies, as well as to help secure international peace and safety, according to the draft.

Controls over the military, as well as its formation and the exercising of its right to self-defense and collective defense, will be stipulated by subordinate laws that will be mapped out later, according to a drafting committee member.

Earlier in the day, the draft's wording on two of the most sensitive passages -- Article 9, including the naming of the military, and the preamble -- was approved during a meeting between Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, who heads the LDP's new Constitution enactment headquarters, and former Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori, who chairs the drafting committee.

The preamble of the draft was originally drafted by former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone, who chairs a subcommittee on the issue. But some members were critical of Nakasone's version on the grounds that it asserted patriotism too strongly and was subjective in its views of Japanese history.

As a result, in the final draft, the preamble stipulates that "the Japanese people jointly hold an obligation to support and protect their country and society with affection, a sense of responsibility and spirit."

The preamble also stipulates that the Emperor shall remain the symbol of the state and states that basic principles regarding the sovereignty of the people, democracy, liberalism, respect for basic human rights, pacifism and international cooperation should be maintained as everlasting values.

The new draft also features five types of individual rights not stated in the current Constitution pertaining to government information, intellectual property, the environment, personal data protection and dignified treatment for disabled people and crime victims.

Article 20 of the Constitution prohibits the nation and its organs from carrying out religious education and any other religious activity.

The LDP's draft prohibits the nation and public organs from engaging in religious education or any other religious activity that will lead to support for or interference with a specific religion beyond the scope of social courtesy, manners and customs.

The Japan Times: Oct. 29, 2005
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